Weekly Oil Report – February 29, 2012

Compiled by Darryl L. Flowers

New Locations

    Anschutz Exploration won approval for the Flat Iron 1-8-32-12 (SW SE 8-32N-12W). The Glacier County well has a proposed depth of 8,900 feet.

New Locations – Horizontal Wells

    Two permits were approved in Roosevelt County. The EOG Resources’ Highline 1-2833H (NW NE 28-29N-59E), targeting the Bakken Formation, will have a Proposed Bottom Hole Location (PBHL) of 19,796 feet. Whiting Oil and Gas won approval for the Christoffersen 24-20TFH (SE SW 20-30N-56E).  The well is aiming for the Three Forks Formation with a PBHL at 18,906 feet.

    In Rosebud County, Fidelity Exploration and Production was greenlighted for the Coffee 31-2H (NW NE 2-10N-33E).  The Heath Formation well will have a PBHL of 9,657 feet.

    Marathon Oil will be “Rockin’ the Bakken” with their Sorensen 34-9H well (SW SE 9-31N-59E). The well has a PBHL of 19,483 feet.

Re-Issued Locations

    Fidelity Exploration received a permit for the Federal 4028 (NE SE 35-8N-59E). With a proposed depth of 2,000 feet, the well will tap into the Eagle Formation.  In Toole County, FX Drilling received a permit for the Midboe 4-3 (NW 3-34N-1E). The Duperow Formation well has a proposed depth of 3,300 feet. The Midboe was also granted a Permit Modification or Correction.


    In Richland County Slawson Exploration wrapped up the Rover 1-20H well (NW NW 20-23N-53E). The Bakken Formation well reported a bottom hole location of 13,442 feet. Initial Potential flow was 224 barrrels of oil per day, 157,000 cubic feet of gas per day, and 2,161 barrels of water per day.

Expired Permits

    Topping the list of Expired Permits this week is Quaneco, LLC with 16 expirations in Big Horn County at the Wadle Creek Field. All the wells are in 36-9S-42E. All the wells were permitted for coal bed methane.

    In Blaine County, Devon Energy Production has two wells with expired permits: the Bonus LLC-DIR 33-6 (SE NW 33-27N-19E) and the Brewer-DIR 22-15 (SE SE 22-26N-17E).  Devon’s permit for the Olson 21-5A (SW NW 21-31N-17E) in Hill County also expired.

Abandoned Wells

In Hill County Devon Energy received permits to abandon two wells, the Solomon 34-3 (NE NW 34-31N-16E) and the Hanson 20-4 (NW NW 20-32N-17E).


“Darryl, this is Brian Schweitzer.” – Weekly Oil Report

Primary Petroleum rig at Watson Flats, near Choteau. Sun Times photo by Darryl L. Flowers
Compiled by Darryl L. Flowers

Last week there were reports about a visit to the oil fields in Eastern Montana by Governor Brian Schweitzer.  The Gazette in Billings had a fine write up covering the Governor’s comments on “fracturing”. I sent a brief email to the Governor’s staff, with a compliment to the Governor for not being afraid to speak out about fracturing in the oil fields.  Before long, the phone rang. When I answered, there was no mistaking the voice on the other end: “Darryl, this is Brian Schweitzer.”

It was more of an informal chat than an interview. I invited the Governor to come to our booming oil patch so we could do a full on interview about the energy opportunities in Montana.

Rockin’ In Roosevelt

Samson Oil and Gas has just released an update on two of their wells in Roosevelt County, Montana.

At the Gretel II 12KA 3 #1-30H well, the rig crew recovered 100% of the cored interval in the Bakken and Three Forks formations, then drilled the vertical pilot hole down to 8,925 feet.

The well was logged and a cement “kick-off” plug was set.  The wellbore was deviated into the Middle Bakken target zone.  A 7 inch casing string was set and cemented at 10,816 feet.  The “kick-off” is the point at which a driller begins a change of direction with the drill bit from vertical to horizontal.

Samson reports that the 6 inch horizontal lateral is currently drilling ahead at a depth of 12,262 feet. Significant oil and gas shows have been observed with “greenish foamy oil” being observed on the shale shakers. The lithology of the lateral has some variation and the best shows are being recorded in a dolomitic lithology, which is possibly consistent with the geology of the adjacent Elm Coulee Oil Field.

The company added, “The forward plan is to drill the lateral to a measured depth of 16,400 feet and run the 4 inch completion liner. The well would then be stimulated, and whilst a frac date has yet to be set, the job has been awarded to Schlumberger, who has advised that they see no undue delays in the supply of the frac spread. The timing of the frac will most likely be determined by flow back operations on the Australia II well.”

At the Australia II 12KA 6, #1-29H well, rig up operations in preparation for the fracture stimulation have been underway during the last week and those operations are essentially complete and the first stage of the stimulation was being pumped Monday.

The forward plan is to complete the 16 stage fracture stimulation, which is expected to take 4 days on a trouble free basis.

The Australia II well was previously drilled to a total measured depth of 14,972 feet and completed with a 4 inch liner equipped with 15 external casing packers.

Big Sky In The Big Sky

Also on Monday, Big Sky Petroleum announced it had completed the Lateral Fracture Stimulation of the company’s first well, the  14-29.

The company also reported it had completed the vertical drilling and casing of its second well (15-13), permitted for a third well (4-3) and is working on permitting for a fourth well (81-4).

The 14-29 Well located in Sec 29-35N-1W of Toole County, Montana has been fracture stimulated and is currently undergoing testing and evaluation. The approximate 4,100 feet lateral section targeted the Middle Bakken Formation. Further results are expected to be received in March. This data will determine the potential economics of this well and will also be used for planning fracturing completions for future wells including the 15-13 Well.

The 15-13 Well is located approximately 3 miles south-west of the 14-29 Well and was vertically drilled and cased. The next operation planned for this well is horizontal drilling and completion including a planned 26 stage fracture stimulation. This operation is scheduled for the second quarter.

Permitting has been obtained on a new well – the 4-3 Well – which is anticipated to be spud in the second quarter.

The 81-4 Well is another new well located in Glacier County, Montana, and is expected to receive permitting approval by the end of March. Once approval for the 81-4 Well has been obtained, the first phase of drilling this new well will be completed. Big Sky previously re-entered, deepened, and stimulated the 81-3 Well which confirmed the presence of oil and provided the basis for drilling the 81-4 Well.

Sam Nastat, President of Big Sky, commented that, “We continue to be very optimistic about our exploration program and our early entry into the Alberta Bakken. The team has done a great job in completing work for each well and we plan to continue this level of activity during 2012.”

State Activity

Nine horizontal well locations were approved last week.  In Glacier County, Anschutz Exploration will be heading for the Sun River Dolomite layer with the Whitecalf 2-4-30-10 well (SW NW 4-30N-10W). The PBHL (Probable Bottom Hole Location) is 8,120 feet.

In Richland County, Fidelity Exploration and Production won approval for the Bouchard 34-21H (SW SE 21-22N-57E). The well is aiming for the Three Forks formation with a PBHL of 14,855 feet.  Also in Richland County, Brigham Oil and Gas will be drilling the Skov 21-16 1H (NE NE 28-25N-58E).  Brigham will be “Rockin’ the Bakken” with a PBHL entering the formation at 21,056 feet.

Slawson Exploration was OK’d for three wells in Richland County: the Canucks 2-13H (NW NW 24-21N-59E), the Pilum 1-24H (NW NW 24-21N-59E) and the Cleaver 1-30H (SW SW 30-21N-60E).  All three wells are boring into the Bakken layer with PBHLs in the 14,500 foot neighborhood.

In Roosevelt County, Whiting Oil and Gas was greenlighted for the Olson 21-28TFH (NE NW 28-30N-56E).  The Three Forks Formation well has a PBHL of 19,061 feet.

Rosebud County will be the home of the Nefsy 44-2H well (SE SE 2-11N-33E).  The Fidelity Exploration well is heading for the Heath Formation with a PBHL of 10,473 feet.

In Sheridan County, Marathon Oil Company was approved for the Rodney Sveet 21-28H (SE SW 21-31N-59E).  The Bakken well has a PBHL of 19,875 feet.

In Richland County, Poor Boy Oil was granted a permit for Re-Entry of a Plugged Well at the Dore 1 well (NW NW 29-24N-59E).  The well has a proposed depth of 6,500 feet into the Rierdon Formation.

There were six Re-Issued Locations in Phillips County, all for Fidelity Exploration wells. The wells, all in the Bowdoin Field, are the Federal 1548 (NW NE 30-31N-34E), the Fee 1539 (NE NW 4-31N-34E), the Fee 1546 (NW NW 6-31N-34E), the State 1540 (SE SW 16-31N-34E), the Fee 1530 (SE SE 34-32N-34E) and the Fee 1526 (NE NW 19-31N-34E).  All the wells have a proposed depth of 1,800 feet targeting the Mowry Shale.

In Roosevelt County, a Re-Issue Location was permitted for the Stateline 8-3328H (SE SE 33-28N-59E), a Bakken formation well with a PBHL of 19,602 feet. The well operator is EOG Resources.

Rounding out the Re-Issued Locations are six in Valley County. All are in the Bowdoin Field and have a proposed depth of 1,800 feet into the Mowry Shale. The wells are the Federal 1549 (NW SW 19-31N-35E), the Fee 1536 (NW NW 2-31N-34E), the Fee 1538 (SE SE 2-31N-34E) the Fee 1544 (NW NW 26-31N-34E), the Fee 1524 (NW NW 27-31N-34E) and the Fee 1542 (SE NE 10-31N-34E).  All six wells are operated by Fidelity Exploration.

There was one Permit Modification/Correction permitted last week, the Ella Marie 2759 42-9H (SE SW 9-27N-59E) operated by Oasis Petroleum North America. The well has a PBHL of 20,510 feet.

In Fallon County, Continental Resources completed the Husted 12-14SH (SW NW 14-6N-61E).  The well has a BHL (Bottom Hole Location) of 15,253 feet.  The well reported an IP (Initial Potential) of 75 BOPD (Barrels of Oil Per Day), 570 MCFPD (Thousand Cubic Feet of gas Per Day) and 331 BWPD (Barrels of Water Per Day).

In Roosevelt County, Brigham Oil and Gas brought in the Gobbs 17-8 1-H (SW SE 17-28N-57E). The Bakken Formation well has a BHL at 19,402 feet.  Brigham reported an IP of 1,544 BOPD, 1,643 MCFPD and 3,447 BWPD. Also in Roosevelt County, Oasis Petroleum wrapped up the Smestad 2758 13-5H (NW NE 5-27N-58E), another Bakken well with a BHL of 19,570 feet.  The well operator reported an IP of 1,133 BOPD, 1,655 MCFPD, and 1,676 BWPD.

The last of the reported completions was the Ward 12-5H well operated by TAQA North USA (NW NW 12-37N-57E).  The well has a BHL at 11,859 feet, hitting the Bakken formation. The Ward reported an IP of 340 BOPD, 65 MCFPD and 420 BWPD.

There were three expired permits in Blaine County. The Swank 9-12-34-21C (NW SW 9-34N-21E) and the Lybeck 35-7-35-20B (SW NE 35-35N-20E) belonged to NFR Bear Paw Basin. The SE Battle 5-2-34N-20E (SW NW 2-34N-20E) belonged to Montana Land and Exploration.

In Teton County’s “Pondera” Field, Mountain View Energy’s permit expired for the Donovan 33-1 (NE NW SE 33-27N-4W).

In McCone County, Native American Energy Group cancelled a horizontal redrill for the Beery 2 well (NE NE 24-23N-49E).

In Blaine County 11 wells were abandoned. Five of the wells listed Devon Energy Production as the operator.  They are the Loney 1-4 (NW NW 1-31N-18E), the Risley 11-6 (SE NW 11-31N-18E), the Staff 32-5 (SW NW 32-32N-18E), the Williamson 4-16 (SW SE SE 4-31N-18E) and the Paulsen 15-16 (SE SE 15-31N-18E).  All five are located in the Tiger Ridge field.

Also in Blaine County, Behm Energy filed to abandon five wells: the State 36-37-20 (NW SE 36-37N-20E), the Gordon 1-8 (NW SE 8-37N-21E), the S Bar B Ranch 1-31-37-20 (SE NW 31-37N-20E), the Gordon 1-26-37-21 (SW NE 26-37N-21E) and the Gordon 14-12-37-20 (SE SW 12-37N-20E). Finishing out the list of abandoned wells in Blaine County is the Summit Resources Rabbit Hills 9-14 (NW SE 14-34N-19E).

In Chouteau County, there was a single filing to abandon a well, and there is not much “known” about this one.  The well operator, as well as the well name, are all listed as “UNKNOWN”. The location is reported as SW NW SW 29-27N-3E.

In Glacier County, FX Drilling Company filed for permits to abandon four wells. The wells, all in the Cut Bank field, are the SWCBSU 57-W2 (SE NW NW 23-32N-6W), the SWCBSU 34-W1 (SE SE SW 12-32N-6W), the SWCBSU 22-02 (SW NW NE 7-32N-5W) and the SWCBSU 12-W5 (NW SW 5-32N-5W).

A permit was granted by the Board of Oil and Gas Conservation for the Conversion to Injection of the Grizzly 2-24H (SE SW 2-25N-59E), operated by Prima Exploration.

Weekly Oil Report

Compiled by Darryl L. Flowers

You would think that things would have calmed down this week after the flurry of activity resulting form last week’s visit by the folks from Lonesome Dove Resources. But their visit continues to be the big news across the region. As I reported here last week, the Monday meeting was attended by about 50 people.

I returned for the Thursday meeting at the Stage Stop Inn in Choteau, and the crowd had swelled to about 150. It was “standing room only.”

State Activity

In Powder River County, Denbury Onshore, LLC won approval for six New Locations in the Bell Creek field. All the wells are targeting the Skull Creek formation. The wells are the Unit 3116R (SE SE 31-8S-54E), the Unit 6208R (SE NE 12-9S-53E), the BCUD 514R (SE SW 5-9S-54E), the Unit 5602 (NW NE 6-9S-54E), the Unit 5612, (NW SW 6-9S-54E) and the BCUD 5614R (SE SW 6-9S-54E). The wells range in depth from 4,750 feet to 4,863 feet.

In Glacier County, Rosetta Resources Operating LP was approved for two New Locations: The Little Rock Coulee 3407-18-13H (SL SW 18-34N-7W) with a PBHL (Probable Bottom Hole Location) of 9,825 feet and the Fort Piegan 3408-13-16H (SE SE 13-34N-8W) with a PBHL of 9,976 feet. Both wells are aiming for the Bakken Formation.

In Richland County, Continental Resources was greenlighted for the Conaway 1-19H (SE SW 19-25N-57E) and the Ruben 1-9H (SW SE 9-26N-55E). The Conaway has a PBHL of 20,297 feet; the Ruben has a PBHL at 19,979 feet. Both are heading for the Bakken layer. Oasis Petroleum got the go-ahead for the Olson Bottoms Fed. 2658 12-10H (NE NW 10-26N-58E) with a PBHL of 20,513 feet at the Bakken formation.

In Roosevelt County, Oasis Petroleum got the go-ahead for three wells. The wells, which target the Bakken, are the Paul Byron 2758 41-13H (SW SW 13-27N-58E) with a PBHL of 20,586 feet; the Sam 2658 12-17H (NE NW 17-28N-58E) with a PBH L 19,909 feet, and the Ray T Federal 2958 13-26H (NW NE 26-29N-58E), with a PBHL of 20,478 feet.

In Sheridan County, TAQA North USA won approval of two wells. TAQA is aiming for the Bakken layer with the Ward 11-5H (SW NW 11-37N-57E) and the Hjelm 13-1H (NE NE 13-37N-57E). Both wells have a PBHL just shy of the 12,000 foot level.

Permits were issued for the Re-Entry of five wells last week. Denbury Onshore was approved for three Re-Entries in Powder River County: The Federal 6207 (SW NE 12-9S-53E), the Unit 6202 (NW NE 12-9S-53E) and the Unit D 606 (SE NW 6-9S-54E). All three are in the Bell Creek Field.

In Richland County, Slawson Exploration won approval for the Re-Entry of the Ullman 1-20 SWD (NW SE 20-20N-60E) and the Verschoot 1-19 SWD (NW SW 19-23N-54E). Both wells are aiming for the Dakota formation.

The list of Re-Issued locations from last week is a long one. In Fergus County Kykuit Resources was approved for five locations, all are Wildcat locations targeting the Colorado Shale formation. The wells are the Rich 5B-21-18 (NW SW 5-21N-18E), the Wickens 8-21-18 (SE NE 8-21N-18E), the Udelhoven 9-21-18 (N2 NE 9-21N-18E), the Blazicevich 11-21-19 (SW SE 11-21N-19E) and the Iverson 15B-21-19 (SE NW 15-21N-19E). All the wells were permitted to a proposed depth of 2,200 feet.

In Hill County, Devon Energy Production was granted a Re-Issue permit for the Rocky Boy-DIR 1-14 (SE SW 1-30N-14E) in the Tiger Ridge field. The well has a PBHL of 2,700 in the Eagle formation.

In Phillips County, Re-Issue permits were OK’d for two wells belonging to Fidelity Exploration. The Federal 1531 (NE NE 11-31N-33E) and the Federal 1527 (SW NW 28-31N-34E). Both wells have a proposed depth of 1,800 feet in the Mowry Shale.

In Valley County there were ten Re-Issues, all in the Bowdoin field. The wells are: the Federal 1543 (NW SE 15-31N-34E), the Federal 1525 (NW NE 25-31N-34E), the Federal 1512 (NE NW 14-31N-35E), the Federal 1516 (SW SW 15-31N-35E), the Federal 1545 (NE SE 19-31N-35E), the Federal 1523 (SE SE 20-31N-35E), the Federal 1518 (SE NE 21-31N-35E), the Federal 1517 (NW SE 23-31N-35E), the Federal 1522 (SW NE 23-31N-35E) and the Federal 1520 (NE NW 29-31N-35E). All the wells belong to Fidelity Exploration and have a proposed depth of 1,800 feet (Mowry Shale).

A Permit Modification was issued in Musselshell County for the Tranel 22-22H (SE NW 22-11N-24E), which belongs to True Oil, LLC. The well has a PBHL of 4,852 feet, in the Heath Formation. In Rosebud County, a Permit Modification was issued for a Fidelity well, the Kincheloe 11-23H (NW NW 23-12N-32E). The Kincheloe, which is in the Heath Formation, has a PBHL of 9,576 feet.

Six wells were reported as completed last week. In Carbon County, Energy Corp. of America finished the ECA Foothills 1-H (NW SW 13-6S-17E). The well has a total depth of 4,933 feet.

In Richland County, Continental Resources wrapped up the David 2-20H (SE SE 20-25N-55E) with a BHL (Bottom Hole Location) at 19,415 feet. The well reported an IP (Initial Potential) of 755 BOPD (Barrels of Oil Per Day), 458 MCFPD (Thousands of Cubic Feet [of gas] Per Day) and 430 BWPD (Barrels of Water Per Day).

In Sheridan County, Northern Oil put the finishing touches on the Onstad 14-11 (SW SW 11-34N-58E) while Omimex Canada finished the Ostby 3-34 (NE NE 34-31N-58E). The Ostby reported an IP of 180 BOPD.

Three wells were completed in Toole County. Keesun Corporation wrapped up the Elan 7-5 (SW NE 5-32N-4W) and the Sharman 16-32 (SE SE 32-33N-4W), both are gas wells. Slochin, Inc. completed their Toole County well, the Halter 5-5B (NW NE 21-35N-2W).

BOOM! It’s Here! (Oil Boom, That Is!)

Landowners get down to business with a representative of Lonesome Dove Resources after Monday night’s presentation. Sun Times photo by Darryl L. Flowers
By Darryl L. Flowers
Published: Sunday, February 5, 2012 6:31 PM CST
If there is anyone in this part of Montana that still questions whether or not there is commercially recoverable oil under our feet, they should spend a couple of hours listening to the folks with Lonesome Dove Resources discuss their plans for the area.

Monday night a crowd of almost 50 people, mostly invited landowners and leaseholders, filled one of the meeting rooms at the Stage Stop Inn in Choteau.

Jim Bass, Consulting Geologist for Lonesome Dove, gave an easy to understand presentation with slides, videos and a good dose of Texas humor.

Bass described Lonesome Dove as a group of “four or five Texas companies, each with a different expertise in the oil industry.” He explained that Lonesome Dove, or its affiliated companies, are currently active in many of the nation’s oil plays, including the “Fayetteville” play in Arkansas and the “Marcellus” play in Virginia and West Virginia.

According to Bass, Lonesome Dove is a private company, and as such does not need to grab big lease acreages and then head to Wall Street to raise capital for operations. “We’re a company that’s going after oil,” Bass told the crowd.

Bass, who comes from a family involved in the oil business, touched on that family history as he explained that his father was VP of Exploration with Texaco, saying, “He drilled wells in Montana.”

Bass used slides to explain the geology peculiar to the region that has resulted in massive oil deposits. According to Bass, the events that produced and trapped the oil here are identical to those that occurred in the Williston Basin in North Dakota.  The Sun Times, in research done recently for an upcoming story, has confirmed that, chemically, the oil here is identical to that in Williston Basin.

The area of particular interest to Lonesome Dove at this time is an area that covers the majority of Teton County, which lies just to the west of a geologic formation referred to as the “Sweetgrass Arch.”

The Texas Oilman described the “targets” the company is aiming for, in particular the Exhaw Shale, also known as the Alberta Bakken. Bass claims that the shale in this area is 100 feet thick, explaining that this is the most productive area underground in this area.  But, according to Bass, who was drilling wells in North Dakota in the 70s, there are two other oil bearing rock formations below Teton County: the Rierdon and the Souris River layers.  Bass used two words to describe the Reardon Formation: “oil soaked.”

Someone in the crowd asked how far to the west they planned to search for oil.  Bass replied that, along the front, near the mountains, the hyrdocarbons buried underground were exposed to too much heat and “burned.”  “All you’ll find next to the front is gas.”  He added that with the low price of natural gas, and the problems with transporting it to market, it made no sense to pursue that fuel at this time.

The transportation of the oil to refineries was the next topic, with Bass explaining that with the wells already in development in Glacier County, pipeline capacity will fill up rapidly.  As wells in Teton County begin to produce, rail and truck will be used to carry some of the product to refineries in Great Falls and Billings.  “We have already been in touch with the refinery in Great Falls,” said Bass. “They are in the process of expanding their capacity.”

According to Bass, the logical, long term solution is pipeline transport of the oil to the refinery. “As we progress, we will bring in the companies that we have worked with in the past to put in new pipeline capacity.”  On a map, Bass showed the location of several pipelines that cross the eastern edge of Teton County in a North-South route. There is also a pipeline running just to the south of Fairfield that might be available.  Someone mentioned a line carrying gas to the south of Choteau. Bass explained that the owner of that line might want to switch to oil.

A representative of CHS in attendance briefly described their system of transport to the CHS refinery in Laurel, Montana and asked if Lonesome Dove might have an interest in utilizing that refinery.

A video was played that gave a quick explanation of the drilling process, the horizontal drilling process, and the hydraulic fracturing process.

Included in the video were photos of drilling rigs operated by the company, showing the systems they use to reclaim the water and chemicals used in the hydraulic fracturing process. Bass told the crowd that water from the lakes and streams was not clean enough to be used in the wells.  “The bacteria in surface water will react with the hydrocarbons underground, creating Hydrogen Sulfide,” a deadly gas.

“When we need water, we will contract with a water producer, such as a town.” said Bass. “We may work with the landowner to drill a water well on their property.  We’ll drill the well and set it up to supply the water we need. After we leave, the well is yours to use.” That brought a positive response from several ranchers in the crowd.

When describing how Lonesome Dove drills multiple horizontal “legs” Bass described the pattern as “intersecting pitchforks.” “We try to drain every drop of oil,” he added.

Someone asked what kind of production the company looks for in a well. Bass described how oil men had to use caution as they took oil out of the ground, being careful to use the natural pressure within the oil-bearing rock formations to move the oil to the borehole in a controlled manner. When questioned further, Bass told the crowd that they look for the payout on a well to occur in “about 18 months.”  “At $100 a barrel, a well producing 100-150 barrels a day can do that.”

During his presentation, Bass revealed a bit of industry “scuttlebutt,” as he gave credit to Primary Petroleum, the oil and gas exploration company that has been on the ground in the area for some time: “Primary was here first, and we’re searching for spots behind them.” Bass continued, “There are a lot of rumors out there, and what we are hearing is that Primary is seeing some good results.”

Bass next added that there were some fascinating well logs from Cascade County. “It looks really good.” After the meeting Bass commented to the Sun Times that more research needs to be done in Cascade County.

According to Bass, Lonesome Dove has reached about 50% of their goal when it comes to acquiring leases in the area.  Among those in Teton County that have signed on with Lonesome Dove are Jim Salmond and AMS Ranch.